Atomic Line List: Documentation



The atomic line list is a compilation of approximately 1.72 million allowed and forbidden atomic transitions in the range from 0.5 Å to 1000 µm.

Allowed electric dipole transitions, as well as forbidden magnetic dipole/quadrupole and electric quadrupole/octupole transitions are compiled for all ionization stages of all elements included in the list, provided level data are available.

Intercombination lines are compiled for the same ions, provided that the ground state of that ion has at least one electron in the 2p shell or Z > 10. However, intercombination lines originating from the ground term are always included.

The wavelengths in this list are all calculated from the difference between the energy of the upper and lower level of the transition (except for hydrogenic lines which are a weighted average of the fine-structure components, calculated using ab initio theory taken from Mohr, Taylor, & Newell, 2008, Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 633). Only a very limited attempt has been made to combine these calculations with observed wavelengths. The information for the energy levels was taken from various sources listed below.

1 - NIST Atomic Spectra Database (version 1.1), 1997
2 - Kelly R.L., 1987, Atomic and Ionic Spectrum Lines below 2000 Angstroms, Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 16, Suppl. No. 1
3 - Bashkin S., Stoner J.O. (Jr.), 1975, Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam
4 - Moore C.E., 1949, Atomic Energy Levels, Circular of the National Bureau of Standards 467
5 - Martin W.C., 1987, Phys. Rev. A, 36, 3575
6 - Raassen A.J.J. et al., 1992, A&AS 95, 223
7 - Mohr P.J., Taylor B.N., Newell D.B., 2008, Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 633 (section IV.A)
8 - Persson W., Wahlström C.-G., Joensson L., Di Rocco H.O., 1991, Phys. Rev. A, 43, 4791
9 - Johansson I., 1959, Ark. Fys. 15, 169
10 - Johansson L., 1961, Ark. Fys. 20, 489
11 - Crossley R., 1984, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 266
12 - Löfstrand B., 1973, Physica Scripta 8, 57
13 - Eidelsberg M., 1974, J. Phys. B 7, 1476
14 - Ölme A., 1969, Ark. Fys. 40, 35
15 - Ölme A., 1970, Physica Scripta 1, 256
16 - Odintzova G.A., Striganov A.R., 1979, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 8, 63
17 - Liden K., 1949, Ark. Fys. 1, 229
18 - Palenius H.P., 1969, Ark. Fys. 39, 15
19 - Palenius H.P., 1970, Physica Scripta 1, 113
20 - Engström L., 1985, Physica Scripta 31, 379
21 - Engström L., 1985, Physica Scripta 29, 113
22 - Drake G.W., 1988, Can. J. Phys. 66, 586
23 - Chang E.S., Schoenfeld W.G., Biemont E., Quinet P., Palmeri P., 1994, Physica Scripta 49, 26
24 - Kaufman V., Minnhagen L., 1972, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 92
25 - Persson W., 1971, Physica Scripta 3, 133
26 - Goldsmith S., Kaufman A.S., 1963, Proc. Phys. Soc. 81, 544
27 - Hermansdorfer H., 1972, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1149
28 - Accad Y., Pekeris C.L., Schiff B., 1971, Phys. Rev. A 4, 516
29 - Feuchtgruber H., Lutz D., Beintema D.A. et al., 1997, ApJ 487, 962
30 - Eriksson K.B.S., 1983, Physica Scripta 28, 593
31 - Engström L., Bengtsson P., Jupén C., Westerlind M., 1992, J. Phys. B 25, 2459
32 - Verner D.A., Verner E.M., Ferland G.J., 1996, Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 64, 1
33 - Brown R.T., 1968, J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4698
34 - Brown R.T., 1969, ApJ 158, 829
35 - Vainshtein L.A., Safronova U.I., 1985, Physica Scripta 31, 519
36 - Malvezzi A.M., 1983, Physica Scripta 27, 413
37 - Isler R.C., Jupén C., Martinson I., 1993, Physica Scripta 47, 32
38 - Mannervik S., Cederquist H., 1983, Physica Scripta 27, 175
39 - Pettersson S.-G., 1982, Physica Scripta 26, 296
40 - Moore C.E., 1965-1983, NSRDS-NBS 3, Section 1-11
41 - Kramida A.E., Traebert E., 1995, Physica Scripta 51, 209
42 - Khardi S., Buchet-Poulizac M.C., Buchet J.P. et al., 1994, Physica Scripta 49, 571
43 - Ekberg J.O., Smitt R., Skogval B., Borgström A., 1990, Physica Scripta 41, 217
44 - van het Hof G.J., Ekberg J.O., Nilsson A.E., 1990, Physica Scripta 41, 252
45 - Tunklev M., Engström L., Jupén C., Kink I., 1997, Physica Scripta 55, 707
46 - Kink I., Engström L., 1997, Physica Scripta 56, 31
47 - Edlen B., 1983, Physica Scripta 28, 51
48 - Jupén C., Engström L., 1997, Physica Scripta 56, 592
49 - Wang M., Arnesen A., Heijkenskjöld F., Hallin R., 1997, Physica Scripta 56, 609
50 - Kramida A.E., 1998, Physica Scripta 57, 66
51 - Bastin T., Biemont E., Dumont P.D., Garnir H.P., Krenzer M.J., Bukow H., Kramida A.E., 1997, Physica Scripta 55, 654
52 - Biemont E., Johansson S., Palmeri P., 1997, Physica Scripta 55, 559
53 - Palmeri P., Biemont E., Quinet P., Dembczynski J., Szawiola G., Kurucz R.L., 1997, Physica Scripta 55, 586
54 - Kramida A.E., Ivanov I.A., 1997, Physica Scripta 56, 264
55 - Ekberg J.O., 1997, Physica Scripta 56, 141
56 - Jupén C., Litzén U., Traebert E., 1996, Physica Scripta 53, 139
57 - Azarov V.I., Podobedova L.I., Ryabtsev A.N., 1996, Physica Scripta 53, 398
58 - Bredice F., Gallardo M., Reyna Almandos J.G., Trigueiros A.G., Pagan C.J.B., 1995, Physica Scripta 51, 446
59 - Quinet P., Palmeri P., Biemont E., 1994, Physica Scripta 49, 436
60 - Bengtsson P., Engström L., Jupén C., 1994, Physica Scripta 49, 297
61 - Nave G., Johansson S., Learner R.C.M., Thorne A.P., Brault J.W., 1994, ApJS 94, 221
62 - Myrnaes R., Jupén C., Miecznik G., Martinson I., Denne-Hinnov B., 1994, Physica Scripta 49, 429
63 - Bengtsson P., Jupén C., Engström L., Redfors A., Westerlind M., 1993, Physica Scripta 48, 413
64 - Raineri M., Bredice F., Gallardo M., Reyna Almandos J.G., Pagan C.J.B., Trigueiros A.G., 1992, Physica Scripta 45, 584
65 - Rosberg M., Johansson S., 1992, Physica Scripta 45, 590
66 - Minnhagen L., 1973, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1185
67 - Minnhagen L., 1971, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1257
68 - Whaling W., Anderson W.H.C., Carle M.T., Brault J.W., Zarem H.A., 1995, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 1
69 - Hansen J.E., Persson W., 1987, J. Phys. B 20, 693
70 - Quinet P., 1998, A&AS 129, 603
71 - Pickering J.C., Thorne A.P., 1996, ApJS 107, 761
72 - Pickering J.C., Raassen A.J.J., Uylings P.H.M., 1998, ApJS 117, 261
73 - Pickering J.C., 1998, Physica Scripta 58, 457
74 - Redfors A., Litzén U., 1989, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1447
75 - Schoenfeld W.G., Chang E.S., Geller M., Johansson S., Nave G., Sauval A.J., Grevesse N., 1995, A&A, 301, 593
76 - Wang M., O'Reilly F., Dunne P., Arnesen A., Heijkenskjöld F., Hallin R., O'Sullivan G., 1997, J. Phys. B 30, 4175
77 - Wang M., Faulkner R., O'Reilly F., Manrique J., Arnesen A., Duffy G., Dunne P., Hallin R., Heijkenskjöld F., O'Sullivan G., 1999, J. Phys. B 32, 5299
78 - Jupén C., Meigs A., von Hellermann M., Morsi H.W., Beringer M., Mannervik S., Martinson I., 2001, Physica Scripta 64, 566
79 - van Hoof P.A.M., Calculated using polarization formula
80 - Azarov V.I., Tchang-Brillet W.-U.L., Wyart J.-F., Launay F., Benharrous M., 2001, Physica Scripta 63, 438
81 - Atomic Physics Theory Group, Universiteit van Amsterdam, UvA spectral database
82 - Reyna Almandos J.G., Bredice F., Raineri M., Gallardo M., Trigueiros A.G., 1998, J. Phys. B 31, 3129
83 - Joshi Y.N., Budhiraja C.J., 1971, Can. J. Phys. 49, 670
84 - van Hoof P.A.M., Ritz extrapolation
85 - Churilov S.S., Joshi Y.N., 1996, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 11
86 - Ekberg J.O., 1975, Physica Scripta 12, 42
87 - Borgström A., 1971, Physica Scripta 3, 157
88 - Holmström J.-E., Johansson L., 1969, Ark. Fys. 40, 133
89 - Huldt S., Johansson S., Litzén U., Wyart J.-F., 1982, Physica Scripta 25, 401
90 - Ekberg J.O., Engström L., 1982, Physica Scripta 25, 611
91 - Kramida A., Brown C.M., Feldman U., Reader J., 2012, Physica Scripta 85, 025303
92 - Kramida A.E., Bastin T., Biémont E., Dumont P.-D., Garnir H.-P., 1999, Eur. Phys. J. D 7, 525
93 - Ekberg J.O., 1993, A&AS 101, 1
94 - Nave G., Johansson S., 2013, ApJS 204, 1
95 - Litzén U., Brault J.W., Thorne A.P., 1993, Physica Scripta 47, 628
96 - Gayasov R.R., Ryabtsev A.N., 1992, Physica Scripta 45, 322
97 - Dick K.A., 1968, Can. J. Phys. 46, 1291
98 - Sugar J., Musgrove A., 1995, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 24, 1803
99 - Sugar J., Musgrove A., 1990, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 19, 527
100 - Shenstone A.G., 1970, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 74A, 801 (errata: Shenstone A.G., 1971, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 75A, 335)
101 - Brault J.W., Litzén U., 1983, Physica Scripta 28, 475
102 - Sugar J., Corliss C., 1985, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 14, Suppl. 2, 1
103 - Sugar J., Martin W.C., 1976, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 80A, 465
104 - Shenstone A.G., 1975, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 79A, 497
105 - Raassen A.J.J., Pickering J.C., Uylings P.H.M., 1998, A&AS 130, 541
106 - García-Riquelme O., Rico F.R., 1992, Physica Scripta 45, 212
107 - Shenstone A.G., 1948, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., Ser. A, 241, 297
108 - Tondello G., 1973, JOSA 63, 346
109 - Longmire M.S., Brown C.M., Ginter M.L., 1980, JOSA 70, 423
110 - Baig M.A., Hanif M., Bhatti S.A., Hormes J., 1997, J. Phys. B 30, 5381
111 - Civiš S., Matulková I., Cihelka J., Kubelík P., Kawaguchi K., Chernov V.E., 2011, J. Phys. B 44, 105002
112 - Morton D.C., Wu Q., Drake G.W.F., 2006, Can. J. Phys. 84, 83
113 - Martin W.C., 1973, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 2, 257
114 - Tech J.L., Ward J.F., 1971, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 367

The transition probabilities included in the line list were taken from the following sources:

1 - van Hoof P.A.M., calculated using Coulomb theory
2 - van Hoof P.A.M., M1 transition probabilities calculated assuming perfect LS coupling
3 - The Opacity Project, 1998, obtained using TOPBASE version 0.6
4 - NIST, 2005, NIST Atomic Spectra Database (version 3.0)
5 - Kurucz R.L., 1998, Semiempirical calculation of gf values for all elements
6 - Seaton M.J., 1998, J. Phys. B, 31, 5315
7 - Fischer C.F., et al., MCHF/MCDHF Database
8 - Fischer C.F., Saparov M., Gaiagalas G., Godefroid M., 1998, ADNDT 70, 119 (ab initio)
9 - Tachiev G., Fischer C.F., 1999, J. Phys. B 32, 5805 (ab initio)
10 - Tachiev G., Fischer C.F., 2000, J. Phys. B 33, 2419 (ab initio)
11 - Tachiev G., Fischer C.F., 2001, Can. J. Phys. 79, 955 (ab initio)
12 - Tachiev G., Fischer C.F., 2001, Can. J. Phys. 79, 955 (energy adjusted)
13 - Zatsarinny O., Fischer C.F., 2002, J. Phys. B 35, 4669 (ab initio)
14 - Tachiev G., Fischer C.F., 2002, A&A 385, 716 (ab initio)
15 - Tachiev G., Fischer C.F., 2002, A&A 385, 716 (energy adjusted)
16 - Tachiev G., Fischer C.F., 2002, MCHF/MCDHF Database (ab initio)
17 - Tachiev G., Fischer C.F., 2002, MCHF/MCDHF Database (energy adjusted)
18 - Fischer C.F., MCHF/MCDHF Database (ab initio)
19 - Fischer C.F., MCHF/MCDHF Database (ab initio)
20 - Zou Y., Fischer C.F., 2000, Phys. Rev A 62, 062505, and 2001, J. Phys. B 34, 915 (ab initio)
21 - Irimia A., Fischer C.F., 2004, J. Phys. B 37, 1659, and 2005, Physica Scripta 71, 172 (ab initio)
22 - Irimia A., Fischer C.F., 2004, J. Phys. B 37, 1659, and 2005, Physica Scripta 71, 172 (energy adjusted)
23 - Fischer C.F., Rubin R.H., Rodríguez M., 2008, MNRAS 391, 1828 (energy adjusted)
24 - Sochi T., 2010, arXiv:1011.4670 (using the 26-term target data)
25 - Quinet P., 1996, A&AS 116, 573
26 - Atomic Physics Theory Group, Universiteit van Amsterdam, UvA spectral database
27 - Nahar S.N., Pradhan A.K., 1996, A&AS 119, 509
28 - Goldwire H.C., Jr., 1968, ApJS 17, 445
29 - Kisielius R., 2014, private communication
30 - Kurucz R.L., 2012, Second generation of semiempirical gf values
31 - Drake G.W.F., Morton D.C., 2007, ApJS 170, 251


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